when I plug the phone in via USB, the phone beeps, I get a lightning bolt on my battery, but that's it. There are no USB options in the pull-down status bar, and the PC does not recognize that a device has been plugged in
Have you checked if there are issues shown in the device manager?
They are usually shown with exclamation mark or question mark.
Try to delete them, then reconnect your phone.
Ensure you have enabled "show hidden devices" in the view menu, and it is important that your phone is connected while you're viewing the devices.
Try these methods. It may help you.
Reboot your phone and try to connect again. Make sure that your phone's USB cord is not damaged.
If the problem persists, download mobile device drivers for your device (may available on the manufacturer's website) and install it on your PC.
Try a different cable and try different USB port.