You can use your Android for development. In fact, you should use your Android device for development. The emulators are OK for very little things, but it's far from being enough.
You can't break your phone if you're doing beginner development and you're not touching system files on the device. In the wooooorst case you would need to format it.
You said you'd work with Java NDK and that doesn't exist. Is Java or NDK. Java it's, well... Java (High level language used by Android). And NDK is the Native Development Kit and that's C and C++ languages (mainly used for game development).
A beginner programmer should start with Java inside Android because of its goodies and development tools.
What are you going to do with the device? The listviews, arrays, images, buttons or anything else you'd use in the development can't break it.