The Package Manager (`pm`) will do exactly what you want.

In either `adb` or Terminal Emulator, run the `pm` command and you can see its capabilities.

We look at 2 of them:

 - `pm list packages`
 - `pm disable <package>`

`pm list packages` lists all installed packages, this list is unsorted but if you know some easy bash, you can use `grep` to search for substrings in the package names:

`pm packages list | grep google` will list all packages with "*google*" in their name, effectively returning just Google's apps:

Sample output:

`pm disable <package name>` disables a single package you specified. Disabling the Google Keyboard would then be `pm disable`.

To find out what package name maps to what app try this url: `<package name>`  
Replace `<package name>` with the package name you want to check.