A user named r3t3ch provided the following solution on Reddit which I'm reproducing. Their answer was tested on a Moto X with CM 12.1.
To change [night/live] mode (Auto=2, Off=0, Day=4, Night=1):
adb shell settings put system display_temperature_mode 2
To change color temperature:
adb shell settings put system display_temperature_day 6500 settings put ...