Your device is very old, which most likely means that it does not have exfat support.
Compatibility should not be a problem, as every card and reader are usually compatible with each other, as long as SDXC cards are supported by your device.
And for adoptable storage the bulk transfer speed is not that important (as long as you don't record videos or ...
A few points on four partitions:
Dedicated first partition exFAT or NTFS or FAT32 (whichever Android permits and gives optimum performance) to store apps, photos and media.
For apps consider Application Class but that's expensive. Others will exert performance penalty more or less. On filesystem selection, the biggest downside with FAT32 is its 4GB ...
The comment from Irfan Latif pointed me in the right direction. My "Music" directory was still on /data/media/0 as well as the adopted mount. I deleted it from /data/media/0, the directory still shows up in /storage/emulated/0, and the usage summary makes sense now. Down to half usage.
sm is actually not a binary, it is a shell script for java program which does not exist/work on 5.1-lollipop
# Script to start "sm" on the device, which has a very rudimentary
exec app_process $base/bin com.android.commands.sm.Sm "$@"
to answer the headline
a completely another solution ...
Usually you don't need to run consistency checks on filesystems manually. vold runs filesystem check (fsck.exfat or fsck_msdos) everytime before mounting a supported filesystem (including exFAT and FAT[N]) on secondary external storage.
While other answers are correct (at least partially), just to add some extra notes. On recent Android releases you don't need to run filesystem check manually as vold handles this automatically. See When should I run a consistency check on my removable MicroSD card?
If you want to do this manually, you need a rooted device because it's not possible to ...
just partitioning and formatting from adb shell (needs to be umount)
(for doing this in recovery, delete all strings /data/local and su -c from command list)
adb push parted /data/local/tmp
adb shell chmod 0755 /data/local/tmp/parted
adb shell su -c "export PATH=$PATH:/data/local/tmp"
adb shell su -c "parted /dev/block/mmcblk1 mktable msdos"
adb shell su -...
It's easy to achieve on a Linux PC:
Attach both SD cards to PC.
Dump 2nd partition from old SD card to new one. It's also possible directly from Android device. See Creating Partition Dump.
Resize filesystem size to 30GB (the new partition size) using resize2fs.
COPY WHOLE FILESYSTEM:
The above approach works on Android too if you are able to attach new ...
Sorry, you can't do it the way you intend to.
Google photos can back up to Ext.SD, only if the card is treated as internal storage. In your case the SD card is not treated as a part of device memory (portable) .
Adoptable-storage is applicable only if the card is actually mounted on the device and not when connected via USB connector.
I can now confirm that the S9+ supports a 1 TB μSD card just fine.
After a colleague had outfitted his phone with a 512 GB card, I decided to give it a try, because it was already above the limit Samsung claimed was supported but well below the limit one should expect for SDXC (see my question).