Inspired by the airplane mode by @axelderhund, the following is my way.
Add a random URL to home screen
Turn on airplane mode, type in your desired URL in your browser, and add to home screen.
In this way no redirection happens and the url is intact.
Check (original) URL of a home screen bookmark
Turn on airplane mode, which prevents redirection. Then ...
I noticed that the Chrome version on my new phone was older than the old phone. After many failed attempts, I was able to update Chrome to the latest version from the Play Store. Voila! The shortcuts now work.