The initial adb pull/push by-partition-id pattern in the question has merit for recovery environments. Though I didn't test for the whole of the flash ("mmcblk0"), a backup and restore by userdata partition did work in an adb activated within a lineage and "/e/" recovery.
Device is a moto-g4-play "harpia" with full disk ...
I did something a little boring, but it helped me ... Since I wanted to use the smartphone as a webcam, but as you may already guess, the screen is broken.
So I connected the smartphone to the computer, when the message was displayed on the screen, I marked the location for yes and with one of those automatic click apps, I selected the location and put a ...
You can use adb
Enable Developer mode on mobile.
Enable USG debugging on mobile.
Install ADB on your laptop.
Connect your mobile to your laptop using USB.
Open your laptop terminal and login to your mobile using below
Find the exact path where you want to put your files.
Exit adb shell using the command exit.
Use below ...