You can not cancel the update itself because it has already been applied.
Modern Android devices have the system partition twice (called A/B partition). One that is currently active and one that can be used for installing updates "seamless" (so called by Google). Which partition is currently active on next boot can be changed.
The screen you show ...
An app can define one or multiple start icons. Each start icon is assigned with a different "start activity" (a different screen in the app).
If an app is reorganized internally this "start activity" may change. As each app icon is assigned to a fixed "start activity" the old app icon you have placed on your home screen (...
Install AIDA64 from the Play Store, which is free (with advertising). The CPU tab will show you exactly what SoC you have, and what the cores are. For example, my Samsung Galaxy S8 shows:
SoC Model Samsung Eyxnos 9 Octa (8895)
Core Architecture 4x ARM Cortex-A53 @ 1690 MHz 4x Samsung Exymos M2 @ 2314 MHz
You can run /system/bin/pm get-moduleinfo --installed to list all installed modules with their package name and package label. Running /system/bin/pm get-moduleinfo --all lists all available modules (possibly some that are not installed) currently known for that Android release
Note: user IrfanLatif answered this question in a comment under the original post.
Each "Modular System Component" is stored as a single .apex file in system/apex/ or vendor/apex. The name of each file in this directory indicates which module it is. For instance, system/apex/com.google.android.tzdata.apex is the time zone data module (https://...