I see this answer from 2013, but now there are options for High Accuracy, Battery Saving, and Device Only. Also, there was no command for disabling location.
You may check-out my updated answer dealing with the question in entirety, or consider the following info:
- High accuracy:
gps,network(if you don't want Wi-Fi enabled)
- Battery saving:
- Device only:
adb shell settings put secure location_providers_allowed gps,wifi,network
To disable Location mode
adb shell settings put secure location_providers_allowed ' '