I can't find the keyboard in my Samsung Galaxy S3. I only found "Google Voice Typing":
In Settings → Language and Input → Keyboards and Input methods I have only Google Voice Typing.
What's wrong with my device? How can I fix that?
While it sounds strange that there should be no keyboard present, and as trivial as it might sound: Simply installing an alternative keyboard from the playstore should fix that. Take e.g. Hacker's Keyboard, which is a very flexible one, and well rated (I'm using it myself on my tablets). Simply install it, and its settings should turn up at the place you've described. Optionally, add the dictionaries for the languages you like to have them (see the keyboard's playstore page, some are directly linked to the app).
As you currently have no keyboard available on your device, it might be difficult/impossible to use the playstore app on the device itself to install the above. You can still install it:
Once the installation has finished (you can see this in your device's notification area), you can go to the described place (Settings → Language and Input → Keyboards and Input methods) and make the new keyboard the default input method. With that final step, you problem should be solved.
In this case, installation via the web interface cannot work either, as the app-to-be-installed cannot be pushed to the device. Still, there is something you can do:
.apkfile to your computer
adb.exebinary and, on Windows, its helper
.dllfiles -- check the adb tag and its wiki for details, and see QtADB for a simple, user-friendly variant working on Windows, Mac and Linux)
.apkto your device as you usually copy files there
.apkfile's entry. After asking your confirmation, the app will be installed. Skip all below -- you're done.
pm installvia the ADB command-line to install the
.apkon your Android device (see XDA-Developers for more details on this -- usually it should be
adb pm install /path/to/download/*.apk, replace the
/path/to/downloadpart with the full directory name of where you saved the